Power of the Big 5
1st Water India 2017 Expo2nd Water India 2017 Expo2nd Water India 2017 Expo3rd Water India 2017 Expo4th Water India 2017 expo

Welcome to Water India expo

India occupies 2 percent of the world’s land area, represents 16 percent of the world population and 15 percent of livestock, whereas it has only 4 percent of the water resources of the world.

Furthermore, India ranks 133rd out of 180 nations for its water availability and 120th out of 122 nations for its water quality. It has been evaluated that 80 percent of India’s surface is polluted which results in India losing US$ 6 billion every year due to water-related diseases. Challenges faced by the Indian water sector are due to increasing water consumption and wastage in urban areas, water-borne diseases, industrial growth, political and regulatory disputes, water cycle imbalances, increasing irrigation and agricultural demand, lack of technology, etc. According to estimates, India’s water sector requires investment worth US$ 13 billion.

The 4th Water India 2017 expo is an important platform created to show case products, services and solutions available in the water industry worldwide.

The event will provide comprehensive insight into the water industry–best practices, latest technologies, alternative solutions, emerging opportunity and business prospective.

Key segments of 4th Water India 2017 expo

Supply & distribution

  • India is facing water crisis which is expected to worsen as the overall population is expected to increase to 1.6 billion by year 2050
  • According to Central Water Commission (CWC) report, water levels in 91 major reservoirs in the country are at just 25% of capacity—30% lower than last year, and 25% less than the average storage in a decade
  • Reservoirs in India’s eastern and central regions have the most water, with levels at 44 per cent and 36 per cent, respectively, of capacity; while levels in the south, west and north are 20 per cent, 26 per cent and 27 per cent, respectively, according to the CWC data
  • 10-year average for water levels in the country is 38.5 per cent
  • Rs 15,260 crore ($2.77 billion) has been allocated to the Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation to expand and improve drinking water supply in the country

Potable drinking water

  • In the urban areas though about 60% of the population is depended on surface water sources, the availability and quality are questionable
  • Rural India lives in about 1.7 million habitations (including villages), three-quarters of which - 1.3 million - gets 40 liters of water per person per day for all uses, including drinking and other usage like bathing, washing clothes, utensils and sanitation
  • There are 66,093 rural habitations in India where the drinking-water source is contaminated with either one or more chemicals, such as arsenic, fluoride, nitrate, iron and salinity; although this is down from 84,292 over two years (Source: IndiaSpend report)
  • It is estimated that around 37.7 million Indians are affected by waterborne diseases annually, 1.5 million children are estimated to die of diarrhea alone and 73 million working days are lost due to waterborne disease each year

Irrigation system

  • Irrigation refers to the supplying water to the dry land as a supplementation of rain water
  • About 68% of the area equipped for irrigation is located in Asia, 17% in the Americas, 9% in Europe, 5% in Africa and 1% in Oceania
  • Major aim of irrigation systems is to help out in growing of agricultural crops and vegetation by maintaining the minimum amount of water required
  • Apart from crop production, it helps in protecting plants against frost, suppressing wild plant growing in grain fields and helping to avert soil consolidation
  •  Irrigation systems are also used for dust repression, removal of sewage, and in mining
  • Types of irrigation systems

    • Surface irrigation
      - Uncontrolled (or wild or free) flooding method
      - Border strip method
      - Check method
      - Basin method
      - Furrow method
    • Subsurface irrigation
    • Sprinkler irrigation
    • Trickle(Drip) irrigation

Water storage systems

  • India's per capita water storage capacity currently is much below that of China or the United States
  • More than 60 percent of India’s irrigated agriculture and 85 percent of drinking water supplies are dependent on groundwater
  • Water is stored in natural water sources, such as groundwater aquifers, soil waterand natural wetlands
  • It is also stored in small artificial ponds, tanks and reservoirs behind major dams
  • Water recharge/storage/conservation practices from past and present

    • Surface irrigation
    • Katta
    • Sand Bores
    • Johads
    • Bawdi/Jhalara
    • Bamboo Drip Irrigation

Wastewater treatment

  • 80 percent of India’s surface water is polluted
  • 75 percent of water pollution is from domestic sewage, which is discharged untreated into local water bodies

    • Grey water is the domestic wastewater from bathrooms (such as basins, showers and baths), laundry fixtures (such as clothes washing machines and laundry troughs) and kitchen facilities (such as sinks and dishwashing machines)
    • Black water refers to wastewater that contains human waste. Black water is collected through toilets and urinals
  • Only 31 percent of urban wastewater is treated per day at 11,787 million litres per day (MLD)
  • The total wastewater generated by the 299 class I cities is 16,662 MLD.  Out of 299 class I cities, 160 cities have sewerage coverage for more than 75% of the population and 92 cities have between 50 and 75% of population coverage
  • India's total water and wastewater treatment market alone is worth about $420m, growing annually by about 18%

Sewage treatment

  • Only 37 percent of urban sewage is treated per day at 23,277 million litres per day (MLD)
  • Out of 816 municipal sewage treatment plants (STPs) listed across India (522 are operational, 79 STPs don’t work, 145 are under construction, and 70 are proposed)
  • On the whole 70% of the population of class I cities are provided with sewerage facility
  • Delhi has the maximum treatment capacity that is 2330 MLD (30% of the total treatment capacity of metropolitan cities)
  •  Next to Delhi, Mumbai has the capacity of 2130 MLD, which is 26% of total capacity in metropolitan cities

Hazardous waste

  • Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment
  • According to the Central Pollution Control Board, total hazardous waste generation in India in 2015 was 7.46 million metric tonnes from about 44,000 industries
  • According to a report by Centre for Science & Environment, the entire country has nitrate levels higher than the prescribed levels—a result of sewage leaching into groundwater supplies
  • Improper hazardous-waste storage or disposal frequently contaminates surface and groundwater supplies
  • Dumps and landfills are a threat to water supplies when water percolates through waste

Water sustainability / harvesting / conservation

  • There are various methods of water conservations, including; rainwater harvesting, water recycling, reducing water demand in agriculture sector (efficiency of water use, reducing its loss due to evaporation, improving soil moisture through various techniques like mulching, contour farming, drip irrigation, desalination, etc.)
  • Rainwater harvesting (RWH) is the practice of collecting, storing and distributing rainwater to use it as an alternative source of water

    • Global rainwater harvesting market will witness a CAGR of 4.8% during the period 2016-2020
  • Water recycling is reusing treated wastewater. Water recycling helps to further reclaim water
    • Kuwait, Israel, Singapore and Egypt are leading with 91%, 85%, 35% and 32% of its wastewater reuse, respectively.
    • Water reuse market holds huge opportunity in India where the water recycling rate is less than 20%.
    • Capital expenditure on water reuse is expected to grow at a CAGR of 19.5% while the global installed capacity of high quality water reuse plants is expected to grow from 28 million cubic meters per day to 79 million cubic meters per day
  • Desalination is an energy-intensive process where salt and other minerals are removed from sea water to produce potable water for drinking and irrigation.

    • Two of India's most industrialised states, Tamil Nadu and Gujarat, are the keen to use desalination technology
  • Waterless toilets

    • On an average 8,300 litres of potable water is consumed in a month by a conventional urinal
    • More than 53 percent of Indian homes — about 70 percent in the villages lack toilets. Poor sanitation and contaminated water cause 80 percent of the diseases afflicting rural India
    • The cost incurred per month actually works out to nearly Rs 2500 per urinal whereas the cost of these waterless installations is just about Rs 5000
    • The average savings per urinal pot including the water  is Rs 30,000 per year
    • Waterless toilets can be effective for rural India, targeting mainly the farming community with the basic premise that there is dearth of water in most rural areas

Solar powered water supply

  • A solar-powered pump is a pump running on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or the radiated thermal energy available from collected sunlight as opposed to grid electricity or diesel run water pumps
  • Solar-based dual pump pipe water supply scheme is a viable solution where development of drinking water supply infrastructure is not feasible in inaccessible areas and places having no natural water sources
  • Solar-powered water pumps can deliver drinking water as well as water for livestock or irrigation purposes
  • The advantages of using solar-powered pump are:
    • Low cost
    •  Do not depend upon electricity – Solar power
    •  Easy to operate and maintain
    •  Low recurring costs – No electricity charges
    • Water available throughout the day in houses/at doorsteps
    • Water is supplied right upto houses by taps
    •  Works even on rainy/cloudy days
  • By 2016, a total of 1,00,000 solar PV water pumping systems will be installed in India

Hydropower

  • India is the 7th largest producer of hydroelectric power
  • The proposed hydro capacity addition during the 12th Plan period is 10,897 MW. However, up to December 2015, the actual capacity addition is only 3,651.02 MW which is 33.5 per cent of the proposed capacity addition, according to data by Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
  • India imports surplus hydro power from Bhutan. The hydro-electric power plants at Darjeeling and Shivanasamudra are among the first hydro-electric power plants in Asia
  • The public sector has a predominant share of 92.5% in hydro sector
  • Private sector owns nearly 7.5% out of the total 42,783 MW but this sector is going to growing fast

Research and development

  • Indian water market is $ 30 billion sized
  • Key focus areas: equipment supply, public private partnerships for water supply and distribution, water treatment plants and water EPC (engineering, procurement and construction) business and integrated water resource management for utilities
  • Maharashtra is emerging as a hub for the water sector
    • Over 12 international companies have already set up design and engineering centers in Mumbai and Pune
    •  Currently there are more than 1200 companies dealing in water and wastewater treatment in Maharashtra
  • Pune and Nashik are going to be the largest hub for manufacturing and fabrication industry in pumps, instrumentation and monitoring equipment
  • National Institute of Hydrology (NIH) undertakes R&D activities in the field of dam break flood studies, conservation storage of reservoirs, regulations of spillway gates, flood control regulations and forecasting, snow and glacier studies, water quality, groundwater assessment, remote sensing and GIS application
  •  Other institutions involved are the Central Water and Power Research Station (CWPRS), the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), the Central Water Commission (CWC), the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and the Central Groundwater Board (CGWB)

Test and measurement

  • The government has been introducing new technologies like aquifer-mapping programme through satellite data, round-the-clock monitoring systems, appointment of lake wardens, installation of flow meters, etc. for equitable supply and distribution of water and involving public in conservation efforts
  • It has also been decided that all residential group housing projects or apartments in the city with more than 20 units and total build-up area of 2,000 sqm will have to install STP
  • The Aurangabad City Water Utility Company Limited (ACWUCL) has installed the new flow meters at 39 different water distribution points in the city to check water pilferages and streamline the distribution of water from all distribution points in the city
  • Since the installation of the system, the Aurangabad Municipal Corporation has been able to save around 10 to 12 million liters of water per day

Skill and training

  • Poorly trained or untrained water/wastewater plant operators can undermine the proper functioning of the best designed treatment plants through negligent maintenance of mechanical systems, improper supervision of electrical systems, failure to respond appropriately to alarms and warnings, etc.
  • With the rural sanitation and water sector in India poised for change and with the new vision for the sector in the 12th Plan, the sector demands newer capacities, skills and orientation of those working in it
  • National Rural Drinking Water Programme (NRDWP) envisages providing multi-level cadre of adequate motivated skilled and trained personnel in rural water supply and sanitation sector
  • India faces a shortage of skilled workers, and the government is committed to create skilled workforce of 500 million by 2022
  • The Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation has listed around 20 of the country’s most reputed educational and research institutes/universities as Key Resource Centre (KRCs), and around 20 NGOs, who are working towards water and sanitation sector in rural areas successfully

Government initiatives

  • The state Government has made a budgetary allocation of  Rs  988.2 crore in 2016-17 for implementation of 600 rural water supply schemes, augmentation of 500 pipe water supply projects, construction of 300 overhead tanks and 500 iron removal units
  • The Centre has allocated of Rs 12,517 crore (US$1.86 billion) to the Ministry of Water Resources in FY 2016-17
  • The Centre Allocation of Rs 9,000 crore (US$ 1.34 billion) in FY 2016-17
  • Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Campaign), the country’s biggest drive to improve sanitation and cleanliness,US$ 3 billion has been  allocated for the Clean Ganga programme for the next 5 years
  • As per the Union budget 2016, all the 89 ‘active’ irrigation projects are to be placed under the Accelerated Irrigation Benefit Programme (AIBP) on fast track, and raise the required Rs 86,500 crore to finance through budgetary and extra-budgetary resources
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